Violets Viola (Violaceae)
Violets have been recorded in recipes since the 16th century, their smell is very evocative of sweets or perfume for many. Edible violets are a delight visually and soothing for the body.
For me, carpets of purple, blue-violet coloured flowers with heart-shaped leaves, these low growing plants have a strong presence. Easier to spot and appreciate when in flower, they are perennials, so return every year with their purple heads. Found across Europe, including most of the British Isles, I also love their French name; violette and North American varieties are known as wood violets or common blue violets.
At Christmas I trundle down to the same, small, wooden roadside flower stall, about 5 miles from my home. Driving along Cornish lanes it’s an annual expedition to buy a posy to take to my violet-loving aunt. Such delicate flowers, so tiny, yet so robust in the heart of winter, I love my aunt’s oohs, and aaahs at being brought these flowers.
When do violets flower?
Here in Cornwall where the weather is reasonably mild, violets flower through winter and early spring. Traditionally violet flowers would be used to decorate spring cakes, alongside primroses. In other cooler areas of the country and the world, violets tend to flower from Spring to early Summer, though this depends on the variety. Sweet violets (Viola odorata) are an early flowering violet, while common dog violets (Viola riviniana) may also flower through Summer to early Autumn.
How many types of violets are there?
There are up to 600 varieties of violets growing worldwide, mostly in the Northern hemisphere, with a few exceptions. Violets have also naturalised and been cultivated in many countries including North America, Canada and Australasia. The plant known as African Violet (Saintpaulia) is in the Streptocarpus plant family and not considered a violet (Viola) in terms of this post.
Are all violets edible?
Most violets and pansies are edible, including the violet, purple, blue, white ones and the multi-coloured ones. Though it seems that the yellow varieties are best left alone as they can cause stomach upsets. As I’ve mentioned above, African violets aren’t actually violets (they are part of a different plant family) and are not edible. Most of the recipes I share in a dozen wild violet recipes use sweet violets. They are identified by their scent, early flowering (see above) and deep purple colour.
Which are the best violets to eat?
The European sweet violet variety (Viola odorata) is the most perfumed of the violets and the most satisfying to eat and infuse for flavouring and colour. The strong perfume and heavily branded ‘Parma violet sweets’ are flavoured from, you’ve guessed it; parma violet flowers which are thought to be a hybrid of sweet violets and viola alba, originating in Italy. Other violets, such as dog violets, can also be used for their colour, texture and nutrition.
Do violets have any health benefits?
Violet flowers have a high vitamin C and A content. They have been used to treat colds and in cough syrups and for internal and external inflammations. They are also mucilaginous and I find them very gentle for the digestive system. Both the leaves and flowers are renown for soothing skin conditions from eczema, to insect bites and sunburn. Hence being used in massage oils, skin and lip balm and bath salts. Violets can be added straight into a bath, or added in the form of infused oil, vinegar or salt.
Which parts of violets are edible?
The use of violets have been documented as food and medicine for hundreds of years, and have probably been used since the beginning of time. The flowers, leaves and stems can all be eaten and used as medicine, the rhizomes (roots) have also been used, but very cautiously and only in small amounts. I choose to leave the roots alone for this reason and also to keep the life cycle of the plant intact.
How to use violets in food?
Traditionally violets have been used in; violet candy, violet cakes, violet cream, violet syrup, tea and salads. When cooked, they become sticky and are a perfect natural thickener for soups and stews, I wouldn’t recommend them as a side vegetable though, who wants gloopy veg?!
Despite the scent being strong enough to catch my attention when walking past, I find the flavour of even sweet violets very elusive to capture. Best matched with mild or better still, neutral flavours. Take a look at my, no less than 12 violet recipes I’ve created, including;
Crystallised flowers and petals are an attractive way to preserve flowers out of season, or prolong their use in season. Flowers candied in this way can last well for several months. This traditional method is a little fiddly and detailed, which suits some people. I find the effect is worth it, but a session once a year is enough for me!
Which flowers are best to crystallise?
Only use edible flowers and ones that are in abundance, never rare nor sparse ones. Flowers are an important part of many plants’ reproductive system, so only pick what you need. In my environmental policy I suggest never picking more than 30% of a plant, and with flowers 10% or less is more appropriate.
Suitable flowers include but are not exclusive to; violets, primroses, apple blossoms, mint flowers, lilac flowers, gorse flowers and rose petals. This works well with flowers that aren’t too small nor too big. Though a variety of shapes and sizes can also look really effective on top of a cake, for example.
My favourites flowers for crystallising
Are sweet violets and primroses. Violets because they’re easy to paint (see below) the colour is fantastic and the flavour so violety (floral and like violet sweets, if you’ve never had them). Primroses because they’ve been used for hundreds of years in this way and I’m the kind of person who likes traditions. They are rather delicate though - I find the petals break more easily and the colour and flavour is more subtle. My preference would be to use primroses unadulterated - just as as raw, pure flower decorations or popped straight into my mouth.
- Edible flowers or flower petals
- A small, clean paint brush (the right size to get into all the nooks and crannies of a flower’s anatomy)
- Fresh egg white
- Really dry sugar (see below), I prefer to use golden caster sugar
- A warm place to dry the flowers
- Time and patience
How to dry sugar
Darina Allen suggests warming the sugar first to ensure it’s completely dry. This isn’t essential, but it will help ensure your flowers dry well and don’t go soggy. I warmed mine, it’s easy to do and reassuring. Just preheat the oven to 275F/140C/fan 120C and sieve the sugar into a baking tray. Warm for 30 minutes.
How to crystallise flowers
Check the flowers over and brush off any dirt or debris. Some people prefer to wash them and pat them dry, though I avoid this if I can, as it also removes some of the flowers’ scent and you then have wet flowers to dry.
Loosen the egg white in a small bowl, use your paint brush to coat each flower with a thin layer of egg white. Some advice to place the flowers in a salad spinner at this point, to spin off the excess egg white. I find that a bit harsh for delicate flowers! Just paint lightly and be sure you coat every crevice. Pour a little of the sugar over the flower or petal until it has a layer of sugariness. Place on a plate, board or clean/sry surface. Continue with all the flowers. Leave in a dry place overnight or until crisp to touch. I dry mine on top of a radiator.
Store in a clean, sealed jar. Darina Allen stores hers in a pottery jar or tin box interleaved with silicone paper. I just store mine in an airtight jar or clean container.
Want to know more? Why not take a look at my;